Grapes like warm environment and have poor cold resistance, so many fruit farmers choose to use greenhouse cultivation mode, which not only breaks the limitation of the planting area, but also solves many problems in the planting process and meets people’s consumption needs.
The temperature requirements of grapes in greenhouses
1. Requirements for dormancy temperature of grapes
The dormant bud eyes can only be released after a certain period of low temperature. In winter, the low temperature below 7.2 ℃ lasts for 1000-1500 hours, about two months. If the temperature rises before dormancy is over, the bud eyes are not easy to germinate, and the formation of germination is irregular and the germination time is long.
2. Raise the germination temperature
In the first week of heating up, keep the greenhouse at 15-20 ℃ during the day and 5-10 ℃ at night; In the second week, it still maintains 15-20 C during the day and 10-15 C at night; In the third week, it will be kept at 20-25 ℃ during the day and about 20 ℃ at night. It can germinate in about 20 days.
Note that the temperature should be gradually increased. If the temperature rises too high and too fast, it is easy to cause bud eye germination, but the soil temperature has not yet come up, and the root system is active (the root system starts to move around 12 ℃, and the root system starts to grow actively at 15 ℃.) Before it started, the nutrient supply was not available, and the ground and underground were not coordinated, which would lead to irregular germination of bud eyes, poor inflorescence development and other drawbacks. It is suggested that after watering germination water, plastic film mulching (or small arch shed) should be carried out to improve the land temperature.
3. Temperature from germination to flowering
It usually takes 40 to 45 days from germination to flowering. In case of cold snap, the temperature in the shed rises slowly, sometimes extending to 55 to 60 days. It is very important to control the temperature in this period for early fruit harvest. During this period, the new shoots of grapes grow rapidly, and the floral organs continue to differentiate. In order to prevent the new shoots from growing too fast, it is better to control the temperature at 20-25 degrees Celsius during the day and 15-20 degrees at night.
Before and after flowering, the temperature is 25-28 degrees Celsius during the day and 18-22 degrees Celsius at night, so as to meet the temperature requirements of flowering and fruit setting and ensure the smooth progress of pollination and fertilization. At 30 ℃, European and American hybrid varieties can hardly sit still, and Eurasian varieties are easy to cause flower and fruit drop.
4. Temperature of fruit expansion period
In order to promote the rapid expansion of young fruits, the daytime temperature in the shed can be appropriately increased and controlled at 28-30 degrees Celsius, and still maintained at 18-22 degrees Celsius at night, generally not exceeding 30 degrees Celsius during the day. In the mature stage of grape, in order to increase the nutrient accumulation and glucose content of tree, the temperature difference between day and night can be increased, and the temperature difference between day and night should be above 10 degrees Celsius. Therefore, it is still controlled at 28-30 degrees Celsius during the day, with a maximum of no more than 32 degrees Celsius, and the temperature gradually drops to 15-16 degrees or lower at night.
The requirements of moisture and humidity of grapes in greenhouses
1. The grape germination period requires a high temperature and humid environment, which requires a lot of water, and the soil water content should reach 70%-80%. Therefore, at the beginning of heating up and accelerating germination, irrigation should be carried out once, and after the water infiltrates into the soil, the soil depth should be loosened by about 10 cm, leveled, and then covered with plastic film, which can not only maintain the soil moisture, but also increase the land temperature. At this time, the air humidity in the shed should be kept at 70%-80%, so that grapes sprout quickly and neatly.
2. In the growth period of new shoots, in order to prevent the new shoots from being too long and facilitate flower bud differentiation, irrigation should be controlled, ventilation should be paid attention to, and the relative humidity of the air in the shed should be reduced to 60%-70%.
3. Before and after flowering, in order to ensure the normal process of flowering powder dispersion and reduce the occurrence of diseases, the air is required to be dry, so no irrigation is needed during flowering, and ventilation is often carried out to reduce the relative humidity of the air in the shed to 50%-60%.
4. The water demand is large during the fruit expansion period. In order to promote the rapid increase of fruit grains, water can be poured once or twice within 25 days after the fruit is set, so that the soil water content can reach 70%-80%. In order to prevent the fruit from cracking, the soil water holding capacity should be uniform and not changed too much. The relative humidity of the air in the shed is controlled at about 70%. Irrigation should be stopped from the beginning of fruit coloring period until after harvest period, so as to improve the sugar content of fruit, promote coloring and ripening, and prevent fruit cracking. The humidity in the shed should be controlled at about 60%.
5. After the plants fall leaves and are pruned, they should be irrigated with frozen water once to prevent freezing and soil drought in winter, so that the grape plants in the shed can overwinter safely.
Grapes have high requirements for temperature and humidity control, and air temperature and humidity sensors can accurately monitor and record the temperature and humidity in the shed. The data can be viewed locally through the small electronic screen or LED display screen of the fuselage, or remotely 24 hours at any time through the mobile phone computer software, which greatly saves the manual supervision time in the shed.
Grape from germination to maturity for the change of temperature and humidity is very high, greenhouse temperature control motor to operate frequently and flexibly. The intelligent control cabinet can be used to remotely or automatically control the switch start and stop of shutter rolling machine, film winder, water pump, sunshade net and other equipment in the greenhouse. For large planting parks, the effect is more remarkable. If uesed FSYDRIP Smart Fertilizer Machine With the controller, the film winders of dozens of greenhouses can be opened at the same time. Save labor can’t be imagined!
Fertilizer and Water management
Three times irrigation:
(1) Before covering the film: fully irrigate the greenhouse before covering the film, that is, pour the film covering water well; Irrigate the whole garden once in time during the germination period, that is, irrigate the germination water;
(2) After sprouting: After sprouting grapes, they should be watered frequently, according to soil moisture, and must not be flooded with water;
(3) 10 days before flowering: At this time, according to the soil moisture, irrigate the flower-promoting water once, but not too much. Excessive water will cause the phenomenon of falling flowers and fruits.
Four time Fertilization:
(1) Sprouting fertilizer: Sprouting fertilizer is applied about 15 days before germination, and the sprouting fertilizer is mainly quick-acting fertilizer with a small amount of phosphate fertilizer;
(2) topdressing outside the root: topdressing outside the root according to the growth trend after the new shoot starts to grow;
(3) Pre-flowering fertilizer: Fruit fertilizer is applied about 10 days before flowering, mainly nitrogen fertilizer, and phosphate fertilizer is appropriately added;
(4) Foliar fertilizer spraying: at flowering stage, 1200 times of Cuikangjin boron solution or 0.1% ~ 0.3% borax solution were sprayed on foliar to supplement boron fertilizer.
When grapes are removed from shelves, thoroughly clean the fallen leaves and branches and burn them centrally. During the growth period, the auxiliary shoots and tendrils were removed in time to improve the ventilation and light transmission conditions. Spray 3 ~ 5 degree stone, a sulfur mixture of bone before germination after unearthing, eliminate residual germs on branches and tendrils, spray 50% carbendazim 600 times solution before flowering to prevent gray mold, and prevent downy mildew and powdery mildew with Kebo, Necessary and Peike respectively.
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